The end of summer in Bergen has seen a spiked interest from Norwegian media towards the work the Ice2Ice project is conducting.
On 30August the Norwegian national broadcaster NRK included a great news segment dedicated The East Greenland Ice-core Project (EastGRIP) . During the 2 minute segment the audience was given a broad overview of the ice coring activity on EastGRIP including on site video of the station activities, interview with Kerim and NASA graphic of the ice streams.
You can watch the clip here (In Norwegian only. Available when the article was posted on 12.9.16)
The Norwegian Financial daily Dagens Næringliv’s weekend Magazine recently had a long and interesting article about the EastGRIP project.
You can read the article here ((In Norwegian only. Available when the article was posted on 26.8.16)
Once each year the historic hydrographic station on Bornö sets the stage for the NBI/UH summer school on ocean physics. Bornö, a small rock island with dense vegetation, is beautifully located close to the head of the 25km long Gullmar Fjord on the west coast of Sweden, a couple of hours by car to the north of Göteborg. This year’s topic was ocean small-scale turbulence, and besides the delegation from Centre for Ice and Climate, PhD students, postdocs and faculty from University of Hamburg (UH) and Leibniz Institute of Baltic Sea Research Warnemünde (IOW) participated as well.
Gullmar fjord has previously been subject to an intense study of its pronounced seiche motion, a standing wave in a closed or semi-closed basin, and the effect of this phenomenon on the turbulent mixing of the dense deep- and bottom water, which is stagnant during the summer months of the year. In perfect alignment with this year’s topic, existing literature on the fjord dynamics was presented during the morning sessions by the PhD students. These presentations was followed by lectures on the fundamentals of ocean small-scale turbulence and fjord physics.
The lectures and presentations were accompanied with measurement sessions carried out during the afternoons. Various instruments were lowered from the hanging bridge at the hydrographic station to examine the properties of the water column. Of greatest interest was the microstructure profiler, brought by Lars Umlauf from IOW, which measures small-scale variations in the velocity shear that can be used to infer dissipation rates, a measure of the degree of turbulence. No less than 200 microstructure profiles were obtained during the week and provided a glimpse into the evolution of the fjord during the summer school.
One special member of the school cannot go unmentioned, the one-masted boat “Väderöjulle”. In the late hours of the afternoon when reflection had to be made upon the turbulent thoughts that developed during the day, she provided an excellent opportunity to get a better view on the fjord and learn how to sail.
Please see Søren’s website (http://www.gfy.ku.dk/~hpn661/) for further information on past and the present summer school at Bornö, as well as additional photographs and results from our measurement campaign.
The 8th Advanced Climate Dynamics Courses – ACDC summer school took place from 8th to 19th August 2016 in Norris Point, Newfoundland. The topic of this year’s ACDC was understanding the basic principles and dynamics behind centennial to millennial scale climate variability and their link to past, present and future changes to high latitude climate.
27 European, Canadian and US-based master, PhD students and PostDocs joined lectures of climate science with both fundamental lectures on core topics and topical lectures in the two weeks. The diverse background of the students and lecturers reflected the interdisciplinary nature of topics, combining all fields from atmosphere, oceanography, glaciology to geology, from proxy analysis to climate modelling. The course was well structured with both lectures, discussions, field trips and group projects. We ended the summer school by presented the group projects to the class, which topics were all from ice modelling, ocean modelling, lake sediments and icebergs.
The school was based at Bonne Bay Marine Station in Gros Morne National Park, which provided a unique location for field excursions and sightseeing. During our stay we therefore visited several locations to study the local climate, glaciological and geological history. Especially the hike during the weekend to Tablelands, a mountain plateau on the other side of the bay, was a really informative and fun field trip.
In the two weeks the weather was unbelievably good, which provided great conditions for being outside exploring the area by hiking, kayaking and bonfire on the beach.
Several people involved in the ice2ice project were presented at the summer school, namely Kerim Nisancioglu (Professor UiB), Jonathan Rheinlænder (PhD student UiB), Andreas Plach (PhD student UiB), Nadine Steiger (MSc UiB), Søren Borg Nielsen (PhD student UCPH) and Iben Koldtoft (PhD student DMI and UCPH).
We strongly recommend this summer school to all our colleagues working within the fields of climate science.
Want to see more pictures from the 2 weeks? Search for the #acdcsummerschool on both Instagram, Facebook and Twitter.
These days the ship G.O. Sars is carrying ice2ice scientist with the goal of retrieving sediment cores to help answer the overall question of ice2ice: How does the sea ice effect land ice and vice verse?
Yesterday (16th Aug) the Calypso deep corer was installed in the ship and this morning (17th of August) it was tested. In the afternoon, the ship left Reykjavik and in the next few days shell scrape/dredging in the local area (10, 50 and 90 km from Reykjavik) will be performed. The ship will then proceed toward South-East Greenland. There it will dock at Narsarsuaq, while on the way marine coring for more sediment cores to investigate especially the sea ice variability and ocean current changes of the past.
Below a video of G.O. Sars from last years cruise:
The cruise is driven UiB and the Bjerkness center, but making for truly interdisciplinary reserach, 3 Niels Bohr Institute scientist normally working with ice cores and one DMI scientist who normally does climate modelling are also on board to learn about the sediment archive first hand.
Congratulations to Anne-Katrine Faber who succesfully defended her PhD thesis at Centre for Ice and Climate on June 02, 2016 and obtained the degree of Doctor of Philosophy. Anne-Katrine has in her PhD project worked on model-data comparison with Greenland ice core data and climate model results. As part of her project she has collaborated with climate modelers from USA and spent half a year as a visiting scientist at University of Colorado, Boulder. Furthermore during her PhD she participated in field work measuring isotopes in water vapour in the fjords of Greenland on board the ship ”Activ”. The thesis was titled Isotopes in Greenland precipitation: Isotope-enabled AGCM modelling and a new Greenland.
Congratulations to Ramus Pedersen who successfully defended his PhD thesis at Centre for Ice and Climate on June 12, 2016 and obtained the degree of Doctor of Philosophy. Rasmus was co-supervised from DMI. Rasmus has invesitigated if past warm climate states could potentially provide information on future global warming and also explored the atmospheric sensitivity to the location of sea ice loss. He found that the changes in the Arctic sea ice cover are important for shaping both past and future warm climate states. Nonetheless, the last interglacial is not an ideal analogue for future climate changes, as the changed insolation has a large impact – especially on the Greenland ice sheet. The thesis was titled Modelling interglacial climate – investigating the mechanisms of a warming climate.
Rasmus has been hired as a postdoc starting 1.8.2016. The two year position is part of the ice flow modelling team at CIC. Rasmus is a familiar face within ice2ice as he did his PhD on «Modelling interglacial climate – investigating the mechanisms of a warming climate» at DMI one of the partner institutions of ice2ice. During his PhD he amongst other climate effects studied the effect of losing sea ice.
Joel has been also been hired as a postdoc at CIC and started 1st of June. Joel has already been closely connected with the ice2ice community and was part of organizing the MIS3 workshop in 2014. Joel will continue his work comparing the timing and response to climate change using multiple paleo records.
The first set of ice2ice scientists arrived on the Greenland Ice Sheet last week and are now busy working from the EastGRIP camp.
After transferring through Kangerlussuaq, where we spent a few days packing pallets for the Hercules and making sure all our personal equipment was in order, we flew with the Air National Guard to EastGRIP. The science camp is situated in the northeastern corner of the ice sheet, on one of the fastest flowing ice streams in Greenland, responsible for ~18% of the total drainage.
In camp we were greeted by a happy gang of scientist, technical staff and a cook, all from different corners of the world. On the first day after arrival everyone was fully engaged in daily camp duties as well as setting up all the scientific equipment and experiments.
Highlights so far include erecting a mast to measure turbulent fluxes of oxygen isotopes, sampling surface snow and measuring accumulation, preparing the ski way for planes, building the foundations for the deep ice core drill and digging a new toilet (reaching as far down as the 2012 melt layer!).
During the next days we will traverse to the edge of the ice stream to drill a few short cores as well as start on the main EastGRIP core (expected to reach 100m this season) at the location of the camp. Everyone is looking forward to many days of exiting science and fun on the ice!
The 2016 EastGRIP season has started. On April 22nd, the first field operation managers made their way to Kangerlussuaq to open the field office. The first field team arrives in Greenland on April 25th and was put in at only -5C-very warm for the season. However the warm put in temperatures made for a perfect runway, and has allowed for a great start on the 2016 field work in Greenland, which will be visited by multiple ice2ice researchers during the 2016 season. The daily progress of the 2016 EastGRIP field season can found here: Field diaries.
The East Greenland Ice-core Project – EastGRIP – aims to retrieve an ice core by drilling through the Northeast Greenland Ice Stream (NEGIS). Ice streams are responsible for draining a significant fraction of the ice from the Greenland Ice Sheet, and we hope to gain new and fundamental information on ice stream dynamics from the project, thereby improving the understanding of how ice streams will contribute to future sea-level change. The drilled core will also provide a new record of past climatic conditions from the northeastern part of the Greenland Ice Sheet which will be analysed at numerous laboratories worldwide. The project has many international partners, amongst these UiB also part of ice2ice and is managed by the Centre for Ice and Climate, Denmark, which is also part of ice2ice with air support carried out by US ski-equipped Hercules aircraft managed through the US Office of Polar Programs, National Science Foundation.
The EGRIP camp was opened 27th of April at 12:00 by 7 people. The big main building, the Dome was found intact, garages were in good shape and access was easy. Temperatures were high and most of the vehicles started easily. Due to high temperatures and a significant amount of new snow, the plane was not able to take off and the crew helped opening camp for that reason.
Grooming of the skiway began at 17.00 and was continued into late evening. The 109th stayed overnight, while the snow on the skiway hardened. Next morning, the plane took off without problems at 6:30. Overnight, the temperature had dropped significantly.
The first days were as always busy with a lot of small tasks; grooming the skiway, setting up skiway markers, getting an overview, and making all necessities available (outhouse, cooking, heat). The main generator was on at 16:00 (local time), four hours after arrival. The camp has two snowblowers, 3 snowmobiles, a Caterpillar and two Pistenbullys to help with large amount of work needed to build an ice core camp intended to last more than 4 years.
The first couple of weeks have been heavy work!
The plan to dig trenches and use ballons to make structures under the ice for working has worked perfectly.
Now the big task is done: All balloons are now buried under several meter snow, and the snow surface is flat again with only a few ventilation shafts and hoses sticking out of the snow. A few bamboo flags mark the site of the days and nights drama.
Trenches are neccesary to perform ice core science. They provide a perfect cold environment with the mean temperature of the site of about -25C. In these caves under the ice, a drill will be set up in one of the caves and the science will take place in the other.
The next part of the season
The season will continue and by 3rd of June another 4 flights to camp are planned. They will bring new weatherports, beds, tools, shelves, generators and spareparts all have to be installed and is used to complete the EGRIP camp so it may house 35-45 people.However the maximum camp load this year will be just 22 people.
The work will continue by outfitting the science trench and drill trench with workshops, laboratories, control cabin and power. Further scientific sampling is done above ground, including snow property sampling, installation of a tower for water vapour measurements, surface movement measurements by GPS and many other.
The winch and tower used for deep drill will be installed and we even expect to have time for some distinguished gusets for 4 days and a school student visit in in July. At the end of the season the EGRIP camp will be closed down in a way that we can start up next year with a more extensive science program.
On the 11th and 12th May modelers from Bergen and Copenhagen have met in Bergen to discuss various aspects of coming Marine Isotope Stage 3 (MIS3) simulations with our climate models NorESM and EC-Earth, respectively. We have focused on MIS3 38,000 years ago and established the ground work for the participation of further groups in the future.
A big part of the discussion addresses the adequate selection of the global coast line and the ice sheet geometries for the Northern hemisphere. We are going to use the 14 kyrBP ice sheet geometry as a proxy for the 38 kyrBP situation, since both the global sea level and probably also the ice sheet geometry had been similar during these two periods. Furthermore no reliable estimate exists for times before the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM, 21 kyrBP) because the evidence had been overprinted by expanding ice sheet in the time leading into the LGM.
In particular two ice sheet reconstructions have been extensively evaluated: the global, so-called “ICE 6G”, product from Peltier and the estimate form Tarasov for North America. Since only Peltier provides estimate for areas beyond North America, it will be used for these regions. However we have to remove the likely to extensive ice cap in the Barents Sea to be consistent with various sediment cores in this region. This enables our ocean models to simulate a realistic ocean circulation on Asian continental shelf, which is deemed to be important for an adequate representation of the oceanographic conditions in the Arctic. After we get the Tarasov reconstruction data, it will be compared with Peltier’s work. It will lead to the decision if we may use Tarasov’s reconstruction in North America, since it is in accordance with glaciological principles. In general the global coast line is based on the “uplifted” bottom topography caused by the global sea level drop of 70 m.
Often we follow the spirit of the Paleo Model Intercomparison Project (PMIP) protocol, such as we apply the constructed preindustrial vegetation distribution for land points. Hence we do not eliminate any urban region or crop vegetation. Emerging land, due to the fallen sea level, is filled with the vegetation distribution that is typical for the region. A probably more zonal weighted examination may allow keeping the generally observed zonal vegetation alignment. Applied greenhouse gas concentrations are based on ice cores. Astronomical variables present the condition for 38kyr PB, while the solar constant is kept unchanged.
The meeting has been complemented with a video conference meeting with William Roberts, who has help to verify our thoughts. A draft document summarizing the discussion is available on request.